Saturday, March 14, 2020

masai tribe essays

masai tribe essays The Masai have always been different from other African tribes. Their bright red robes set them apart visually. With a spear in hand, they are calm and courageous regardless of the danger. The armed British troops who drove the Masai from their lands in the late 19th century had a great respect for the Masai. In common with the wildlife with which they co-exist, the Masai need a lot of land. Unlike many other tribes in Kenya, they live by herding cattle and goats. They believe Engai (their chief god) gave them all the cattle in the world. They referred to the neighboring tribes of farmers and hunter-gatherers as Ndorobo, meaning poor folk. This is because the Masai measured wealth by the number of cattle, so people without cattle, or those who eat the meat of wild animals are considered poor. The Masai dont have fixed ranches with permanent buildings. Instead they construct a boma (village) for a group of families. The boma is a circle of huts,one per family, enclosed within a circular fence of thorn bushes. the women of each household construct the hut from cattle dung and clay. Periodically, the group will abandon their boma and construct a new one in an area with better water and grazing. The Masai tribe are East African nomadic people speaking Maa, which is an Eastern Nilotic language. Like other tribes, they are a nation only in the sense that they speak one language, follow a common way of life, and observe the same customs and beliefs. They have a barely sufficient, yet fairly homogeneous traditions of immigration, beginning with an ancestor called Maasinda who made a gigantic ladder which enabled the forefathers of the tribe to climb up the long cliff from the Rudoph basin to the Uasin Gishu plateau north of Kitale. From there they deployed in six main sub-tribes over the central part of the Kenya highlands and southwards, down the line of the Rift Valley, into Tanganyika. The Masai went into a...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Physiology and pharmacology for nursing practice Essay

Physiology and pharmacology for nursing practice - Essay Example The assortment of processes by which the body controls the internal environment making it constant is jointly known as homeostasis. In a bid to ensure that the body’s internal environment is stable, the conditions of the body must be continually monitored and adjusted through homeostatic regulation (Lenford and Johnson, 2015). It engages the receptor, the control center, and the effector. The receptor detects information about changes that occur in the environment (Norris & Carr, 2013). They then send the information to the control centers, which interpret the information as either being below or above the homeostatic range (Clancy & McVicar, 2009). The control centers send commands to the effectors that correct the disturbance by either opposing or enhancing a stimulus thus reinstating homeostasis (Clancy & McVicar, 2009). This is a continuous process to ensure the continuity and maintenance of homeostasis. An example is where the temperature receptors in the skin detect a change in temperature; communicate this to the control centers which are in the brain, then to the effectors in the blood vessels and sweat glands facilitating the required adjustments (Lenford and Johnson, 2015). When disturbances in the physiological balance occur, the system reacts to two forms of feedback. These include the positive and negative feedback. The majority of the homeostatic control mechanisms operate on the principle of negative feedback (Lenford and Johnson, 2015). It involves the system responding so as to reverse the direction of the change. An example of this principle is blood sugar regulation in the body. An increase in blood glucose higher than the homeostatic range triggers the processes that reduce it. Still, when blood glucose levels are below homeostatic range, the processes that increase the glucose levels will be triggered. Both instances result in the blood sugar level being maintained at a constant level

Monday, February 10, 2020

Outstanding patient care issue Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Outstanding patient care issue - Research Paper Example Healthcare is the most varying and the most synchronized sector in the current world. The quality in healthcare management is very important, which determines the level of confidence in patients to rely on a particular organization. It is important for the patient to understand that the hospital works in a cohesive manner and there is outstanding patient care. The hospital is responsible to provide all facilities for the doctors as well as the patients. Nurses have an inevitable role in hospitals; first and foremost, they have to clarify what the doctors have prescribed. For providing outstanding care to the patient, these nurses have to call the doctors and be thorough with which types of antibiotics to be given at what time. They take rounds throughout the hospital regularly so as to check the conditions of patients. They need to accompany the physicians and take notes according to what they say. They are masterminds at assessing the patient’s level of pain just by judging t heir facial expressions and they try various things to cheer the moods of patients. The current healthcare field is evolving and advancing with time, as a result, many of the organizations are trying to fulfill the needs and wants of the patients by providing them high class treatment with all types of equipments and machineries. The patient had fever and drainage afterwards and that is why she was readmitted to the hospital for a probable postoperative disease, seven days before. The patient needs utmost care from the organization. This will improve her health both mentally and physically. From the hospital’s point of view, it is very important to take care of the patient by providing whatever treatment or medication is needed. The individual effort will make a group effort that will directly give the best name to the hospital as the staff work their maximum to revive a patient back to complete health. The patients will be pleased by the way they are treated and would also a ppreciate the teamwork of the hospital. A consistent team of thoughtful people will create a world of diversity in exceptional patient care issues, which would bring in wide-ranging rewards to the performance. â€Å"A trusting relationship with patients and their families is built on open, honest communication. However, today's health care environment makes good communication among patients, families, and caregivers harder and harder to achieve. Hospital stays are shorter, medical care is more technologically complex, resources are constrained, and there is a growing need for patients and families to have more information about, and involvement in, care decisions† (Communicating With Patients, 2011). This mutual consent between the hospital authorities and the patients will lead to a positive result. The doctors, nurses and others from the lab and various departments, who are involved in the health care operations, will help the patients to retain their confidence. The initia l nursing plan has been documented but not updated after surgery. The oxygen tanks have been found on the floor and it has been found in not a secured condition. The nurses should clarify orders properly. Also the nurse was not able to range order policy accurately. As diseases like laparoscopic hysterectomy cause a lot of pain and suffering to the patients, they hope for a better treatment that would relieve their pain. The nurses and doctors have to treat this 67-year old patient very carefully and have to put in their best efforts. The patient had to undergo a surgery to treat a swelling

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Essay Example for Free

Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Essay Sandra Bullard November 27, 2011 Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Dr. Chan Body Ritual Among the Nacirema The Nacirema are a North American group living in the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles. According to the Nacirema mythology, their nation was originated by a culture hero, Notgnihsaw, who otherwise known for two great fears of strength- the throwing of a piece of wampum across the river Pa-To-Mac and the choppin down of a cherry tree in which the Spirit of Truth resided. The focus of the Nacirema culture is the activity of the human body, appearance and the health of which loom as a dominant concern in the culture of the people. The belief underlying the whole system appears to be that the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is to debility and disease. In the hierarchy of magical practitioners in the Nacirema culture, second in the lineup are the holy-mouth-men. The Nacirema have a pathological horror of and fascination with the mouth, the condition of which is believed dto have a supernatural influence on all social relationships. If it weren’t for the rituals of the mouth, they believe that their teeth would fall out, their gums bleed, their jaws shrink, their friends desert them, and their lovers would reject them. People seek out a holy-mouth-man once or twice a year. Holy-mouth-men have an impressive set of paraphernalia, consisting of a variety of augers, awls, probes, and prods. The use of these objects are for the exorcism of the evils of the mouth. The holy-mouth-man opens the client’s mouth and, using the above tools, enlarges any holes which decay may have created in the teeth. If there are no naturally occurring holes in the teeth, large sections of one or more teeth are gouged out so that the supernatural substance can be applied. In the client’s view, the purpose of these ministrations is to arrest decay and to draw friends. The natives return to the holy-mouth-men year after year in order to keep sacred and traditional character of the rite. The medicine-men of the Nacirema community have an imposing temple, also called latipso. The latipso is a very elaborate ceremony that is required to treat very sick patients only. These ceremonies are so harsh that it is amazing that the sick natives who enter the temple ever recover. When the supplicant first enters the temple, they are first stripped of all off his or her clothes. In every-day life the Nacirema avoid exposure of his body and its natural functions. Once in the latipso, the body secrecy is lost and the man finds himself naked and assisted by a vestal maiden in which he then performs his natural functions into a secret vessel. These procedures are necessitated by the fact that the excreta are used by a diviner to ascertain the course and nature of the client’s sickness. Female clients who enter the lapitso, find their naked bodies are subjected to the scrutiny, manipulation and prodding of the medicine men. One way that these people address wealth is with shrines. Every household has one or more shrines. The most powerful individuals in society have several shrines in their houses. The shrine rooms of the more wealthy are walled with stone. Poorer families imitate the rich by applying pottery plaques to their shrine walls. Another way I think wealth is defined in their community is the gifts that are given to guardians of temples. The lapitso’s guardian for example, will not admit a client if he cannot give a rich gift to the custodian. And once a client is admitted, they must be able to give the custodian another rich gift before being let out. Cultural relativism is demonstrated by Horace Miner and his capability of understanding and gaining trust of the individual’s culture. The individuals of the Nacirema community opened up to Miner and let him see their sacred and traditional rituals. It was his willingness and openness that let the Nacirema community to trust him. It’s hard for me not to display ethnocentrism towards their community and rituals because it’s completely different from what I have learned and grown up with. None of their rituals that they perform make any sense to me. For example, the women putting their heads in the oven and letting them bake for an hour is hard for me to understand and conceptualize. So, it’s hard for me to say that I think that they’re strange, because that’s their culture and that’s the only think they have ever known. When I put it in perspective and think about their opinions on our culture, they wouldn’t know why we do the things we do within our community. It is very interesting to read about people who once lived in North America and maybe still do live in North America that perform these types of ritual.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Ethics of Cloning :: Persuasive Essay, Argumentative

The Ethics of Cloning Regardless of what our future holds, it will be based on the decisions we make today.   Those decisions can be made using the Utilitarian Theory which states that we are doing good for the greatest number of people.   Using Rule Utilitarianism "which maintains that a behavioral code or rule is morally right if the consequences of adopting that rule are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone. (IEP)" is justifably noted that if a consensus is formed on the basis of rules that govern cloning, and these rules are broken, the appropriate punishment will result.   This is because cloning a human will not benefit the society as a whole, it would do more harm than good.   We all have rules that govern our society over what is right or wrong and we know that these rules are set forth to maintain order.   We have laws because it benefits the majority of the people.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Principles of Consequences state that when looking at the end result, the correct action will be the action that produces the greatest amount of happiness (Ursery).   To decide if human cloning produces the greatest amount of happiness we have one question still in need of an answer is "Are human embryos really human?" Well, the term 'human' proceeding the term 'embryo' should adequately answer the question. The embryo are cloned from human tissue, contain human DNA, thus there is likely a 100 percent chance that the embryos are indeed human, as opposed to being tadpole embryos. Therefore, biologically speaking a clone is no less a human than you or I. And using that human for tissue simply because he/she was cloned rather than conceived does not validate the notion, nor skip around the moral and ethical implications of taking the life of another human being.   Death is not a happy occasion therefore it does not produce the greatest amount of happines to the majo rity of the popluation.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The bad consequences out way the good, therefore we cannot assume that the benefit of human cloning will solve life's problems.   To this day we have yet to find a cure for the common cold.   This is because most diseases have a way of surviving, as did the human race during the ice age.   Everything finds a way to adapt to it's environment and if the benefits major benefit for cloning is to cure diseases, then we are at a loss.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Neonatal Screening Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Health And Social Care Essay

Methods: We assessed whether adult females would be willing to partake in a pilot testing plan for antenatal intoxicant exposure in a bad obstetric unit antecedently shown to hold a high prevalence of FAEE-positive meconium when tested anonymously. The testing plan involved voluntary testing of meconium for FAEEs and long-run developmental followup of positive instances through an bing public wellness plan. Consequences: The engagement rate in the showing plan was significantly lower than when proving was offered anonymously ( 78 % vs. 95 % , severally ; p & lt ; 0.05 ) , and the positiveness rate was 3 % A in contrast to 30 % observed under anon. conditions ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Interpretation: These low rates suggest that the bulk of imbibing female parents refused to take part. We conclude that despite the possible benefits of such screening plans, maternal involuntariness to consent, probably due to fear, embarrassment, and guilt, may restrict the effectivity of meconium proving for population-based unfastened showing.Introduction:Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder ( FASD ) encompasses the wide scope of physical, cognitive, and behavioural disablements that can originate due to antenatal intoxicant exposure ( 1 ) . Affecting an estimated 9.1/1000 unrecorded births, it is a taking preventable cause of mental deceleration in the western universe ( 2 ) , with estimated one-year costs in Canada transcending $ 5 billion in productiveness losingss, medical costs, particular instruction, societal services, and projecting behaviors ( 3 ) . Although the primary alcohol-induced harm is lasting, early diagnosing is good and associated with a reduced hazard of secondary disablements such as disrupted school experience, unemployment, institutionalization, and problem with the jurisprudence ; probably because it permits early intercession and specialised support ( 4 ) . Unfortunately, acknowledging FASD is highly ambitious and diagnosing is frequently contingent upon set uping a history of important in-utero intoxicant exposure ( 1 ) . Since maternal studies are undependable in providing this information due to remember prejudice and common underreporting ( 5 ; 6 ) , nonsubjective biomarkers have been investigated. Fatty acerb ethyl esters ( FAEEs ) are non-oxidative metabolites of ethyl alcohol formed by esterification of ethyl alcohol to endogenous fatty acids or fatty acyl-CoA ( 7 ; 8 ) that sedimentation and accumulate in foetal meconium ( 9 ; 10 ) . Numerous surveies have validated meconium FAEEs as biomarkers of heavy antenatal intoxicant exposure happening in the last two trimesters of gestation ( 11-19 ) ; understanding between meconium FAEEs and assorted alcohol-related results has been demonstrated ( 18 ; 20-23 ) ; and this trial has been used anonymously to obtain epidemiological informations on antenatal intoxicant exposure in selected populations ( 23-25 ) . It has been recognized that meconium analysis may function as a neonatal showing tool for the designation of alcohol-exposed neonates, and could potentially be implemented as a cosmopolitan screen or targeted to bad populations ( 26 ) . Such testing would non merely supply accurate exposure history required for diagnosing, but if implemented along with a comprehensive follow-up plan and intercessions, could ease early acknowledgment and intervention of FASD ( 26-28 ) . As an added value, it may place and let for intercession in problem-drinking female parents, which, in bend, may forestall future alcohol-exposed gestations ( 7 ) . However, since informed consent from a competent patient or appointed guardian prior to intervention or testing is an ethical and legal constituent of medical pattern ( 29 ; 30 ) , a testing plan of this nature would necessitate consent of the kid ‘s legal defender ( typically the parent ) . This may decrease the value of meconium showing in a clinica l scene since embarrassment, guilt, and frights of stigma and child apprehensiveness may discourage adult females who consumed intoxicant from accepting to proving despite the possible value to child wellness. To find if adult females would volitionally take part in a neonatal showing plan for antenatal intoxicant exposure, we offered meconium proving with subsequent followup, intercessions and societal supports, to adult females from a regional Ontario population presenting in a bad obstetric unit antecedently shown to hold a high prevalence of alcohol-exposed newborns as determined by anon. meconium proving. We assessed the rates of voluntary engagement and positiveness for intoxicant exposure, and compared these with the rates observed with anon. proving.Methods:Capable enlisting:Written informed consent for meconium FAEE analysis and followup of those proving positive was sought from all Grey-Bruce adult females presenting at St. Joseph ‘s Health Care in London Ontario from November 1st, 2008 to May 31st, 2010. Briefly, Grey-Bruce occupants identified by nurses were informed of the survey, offered showing, and given an Informed Consent papers to reexamine and subscribe if they ch ose to take part. Womans were besides informed of the survey through booklets and postings in the pregnancy ward. It was stressed that a positive trial or self-report of imbibing in gestation would non ask engagement of kid protection bureaus, but would be used to originate follow-up by the Public Health nurse and her section and to mobilise support services if needed.Meconium aggregation, handling, and analysis:Meconium specimens from newborns born to accepting adult females were collected into 50-mL screw cap conelike polypropene tubings ( Sarstedt AG & A ; Co. , Numbrecht, Germany ) by nursing staff and labeled with the capable figure to guarantee confidentiality. Samples were stored onsite at -20A °C and shipped on dry ice to the Motherisk Laboratory at Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario on a fortnightly footing where they were stored at -80A °C until analysis. Meconium FAEEs were measured utilizing headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The method involves the sensing and quantification of four FAEEs ( ethyl palmitate, linoleate, oleate, and stearate ) utilizing matching d5-ethyl esters as internal criterions. It has been developed and validated in our research lab, and published in item elsewhere ( 31 ; 32 ) . Heptane, ethyl esters ( palmitate, linoleate, oleate, stearate ) , fatty acids ( palmitic, linoleic, oleic, stearic ) , anhydrous ethanol-d6, and thionyl chloride were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. ( St. Louis, MO ) . Acetone was obtained from EMD Chemicals Inc. ( Gibbstown, NJ ) . Chromatograms were analyzed utilizing LabSolutions GCMSsolution package version 2.50SU1 ( Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan ) . A cumulative amount of a†°?2.00 nmol FAEE/gram meconium was considered positive, bespeaking heavy imbibing with 100 % sensitiveness and 98.4 % specificity as was established in a population ba seline survey that measured meconium FAEEs in newborns born to ascetics, societal drinkers, and confirmed heavy drinkers ( 16 ) .Maternal and neonatal features:Capable features along with gestation and bringing information were obtained from charts of accepting adult females. Additionally, information on intoxicant usage was obtained by the nursing staff utilizing the Parkyn Screening Tool ; a everyday postpartum questionnaire.Follow-up and neurodevelopmental appraisal:Children with positive meconium consequences were followed-up through Ontario ‘s †Healthy Babies Healthy Children † ( HBHC ) plan that involves postpartum home-visits by public wellness nurses who provide personalized support and instruction to households with neonates ( 33 ) . In this survey, the nurse assigned to a positive instance was notified of meconium trial consequences, conducted an in-depth household appraisal ( including a screen for intoxicant usage upsets ) , and enrolled the household i n an on-going home-visiting plan with an individualised household service program that included regular appraisals of developmental mileposts utilizing the Ages and Stages QuestionnairesA ® ( ASQ ) . Children with positive trial consequences besides received neurodevelopmental appraisal by a certified clinical psychologist during two place visits ; around 3 months and 1-1.5 old ages of age. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition ( Bayley-IIIA ® ) was used, which measures infant cognitive, lingual, and motor operation. If developmental holds were detected, extra service suppliers were engaged through referrals to intercession plans and specialized services that were provided through HBHC plan and Grey-Bruce Health Unit at no cost to the household. Need for referral to diagnostic services at the Hospital for Sick Children was assessed. Extra support services for the household were available if needed, including dependence intervention, guidance, rearing support, instruction on FASD, nutrition, employment, and diversion.Comparison with anon. meconium testing:The showing plan was launched in a bad obstetric unit where a old survey, utilizing anon. meconium testing, observed a 12-fold higher hazard of FAEE-positive meconium in adult females referred to this site as compared to the general population of the part ( 30 % vs. 2.5 % ) . About 95 % of adult females participated in that survey. To find whether adult females who consumed intoxicant during gestation agreed to take part in the pilot unfastened t esting plan, the rates of voluntary engagement and positiveness for antenatal intoxicant exposure observed in our unfastened plan, were compared to rates observed in that old anon. survey conducted in the same obstetrical unit a twelvemonth before ( 25 ) . Fisher ‘s Exact Test was used to compare the consequences of the two surveies. Two-tailed P-value & lt ; 0.05 was considered statistically important.Ethical motives:The survey was approved by the research moralss boards of the Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Western Ontario.Consequence:Willingness of female parents to take part in unfastened testing plan:Sixty female parents from Grey-Bruce were identified at St. Joseph ‘s Hospital and offered meconium showing, of which 47 adult females consented, numbering a 78 % consent rate ( Figure 1 ) . The maternal and neonatal features of accepting topics are presented in Table 1. The consent rate was significantly lower than that observed in old survey in which meconium was tested anonymously ( 95 % vs. 78 % ) ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) ( Table 2 ) . Of involvement, we documented one case where a adult female recalled take parting in the anon. prevalence survey with her old babe, but refused to take part in this unfastened testing plan when told there would be follow-up of positive instances. Additionally, we encountered a adult female who, although agreed to take part, was uncooperative, repeatedly pretermiting to advise the nurses that meconium had passed and flinging the samples so that none were collected.Positivity for antenatal intoxicant exposure in pilot testing plan:Samples were collected from 50 newborns of which 39 were successfully analyzed ( Figure 1 ) . Merely one of the 39 samples tested above the positive cut-off ( a†°?2 nmol/g ) for FAEE ( 52 nmol/g ) , which translated to a 3 % positiveness rate for antenatal intoxicant exposure. Eleven samples were non-analyzable because of presence of contaminations and/or postpartum stool that impeded chromatography. The ascertained 3 % positiveness rate for antenatal ethyl alcohol exposure was tenfold lower than the 30 % positiveness rate observed under anon. conditions in the old survey ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) ( Table 2 ) .Maternal self-report of intoxicant usage in gestation:Chart reviews did non uncover that substance maltreatment ( intoxicant or drugs ) was the primary ground for referral to St. Joseph ‘s Health Care in any of the instances. Three adult females admitted to devouring any sum of intoxicant in gestation on their antenatal consumption signifiers, including the adult female whose babe ‘s meconium tested positive for FAEEs. However, none reported refering intoxicant usage, with one adult female saying that she drank a†°Ã‚ ¤2 drinks per hebdomad, another coverage that she consumed an â€Å" occasional drink † , and the 3rd saying she drank merely prior to her cognition of gestation without traveling into farther inside informations.F ollow-up and neurodevelopmental appraisal of positive instance:One newborn tested positive for heavy antenatal ethyl alcohol exposure ( 52 nmol FAEE/g meconium ) . Follow-up was arranged as per protocol through the HBHC plan and a public wellness nurse assigned to the instance initiated an appropriate household service program affecting place visits and frequent appraisals of the baby ‘s development. Neurodevelopmental appraisal conducted by a certified clinical psychologist at 3 months of age utilizing BSID-IIIA ® did non uncover any holds ; nevertheless, holds in motor development became evident in 6-month and 8-month appraisals conducted by the public wellness nurse utilizing ASQ. At the 14-month appraisal conducted by a clinical psychologist utilizing BSID-III, the kid scored in low mean scope on motor and linguistic communication graduated tables, exposing holds peculiarly in gross motor and expressive linguistic communication operation, which were good below age outloo ks ( in the 9th and 5th percentile, severally ) . The baby was enrolled in an Infant and Child Development plan and will be referred to a Language and Speech development plan. Referrals to diagnostic clinics have non yet been made, and it is non known whether the ascertained holds are alcohol-related or possibly due to other factors.Interpretation:We observed that engagement and positiveness rates in our unfastened pilot testing plan were significantly lower than those observed when the trial was offered anonymously in the same bad unit, proposing that many adult females who consumed intoxicant in gestation refused to take part, non wishing to be identified by the showing plan. Of involvement, if we assume that all refusals were in fact positive samples, the positiveness rate in our population would number 27 % , which is similar to the positiveness rate observed by Goh and co-workers with anon. meconium testing ( 25 ) . To our cognition, this is the first survey to use biomarkers of foetal intoxicant exposure in an unfastened showing plan designed to ease diagnosing and intervention of alcohol-affected kids. Our consequences suggest that, despite the possible benefits that such screening plans may supply ( as was exemplified by the positive instance ) , adult females ‘s involuntariness to consent may decrease the value of unfastened population-based showing. Schemes to better engagement would necessitate to be investigated if meconium showing is implemented in clinical pattern. For illustration, the â€Å" opt-out † method to derive consent was shown to give higher proving rates in neonatal HIV showing ( 34 ) . Engagement rates may besides increase with societal selling, public instruction, and as the trial becomes established in society. If this occurs, the testing plan piloted here may function as a theoretical account for a plan that can be implemented in a clinical scene since it ut ilized presently bing services in the community. The developmental followup of kids identified by the screen was integrated into Ontario ‘s HBHC plan, and aid to kids exposing holds was provided through bing community wellness plans and services, such as address and linguistic communication, baby and kid development, and rearing support ; which may all be adapted to integrate intercessions and schemes shown to be effectual in helping kids with FASD and their households ( 35 ; 36 ) . Low engagement is non the lone possible obstruction to implementing testing in clinical pattern. The costs and resources required for proving, follow-up, diagnosing, and intercessions, every bit good as, system capacity to manage these instances, must be considered. Two cost-effectiveness surveies analyzing similar conjectural showing plans showed that decrease in secondary disablements and primary bar of FASD by intercession and instruction of female parents may take to social nest eggs ( 27 ; 28 ) . However, more surveies with concrete cost input variables are needed to find this. Furthermore, several ethical considerations could besides impede testing execution. Although showing can better quality of life through early diagnosing, observing maternal imbibing during gestation and labeling kids as â€Å" at-risk † may transport serious psychosocial deductions for these kids and their households, and affect relationships both within the household and between the household and society, including their service suppliers ( 37 ) . The trial consequences may potentially be misused by tribunals, societal services, insurance companies, and even within the health-care system through stigmatisation of patients ensuing in their under-treatment. To guarantee that households experience maximal benefits and minimal hazards, issues environing confidentiality, entree to consequences, and their usage, must be carefully considered. Our survey has restrictions. The pilot testing plan was implemented at a third parturition site, which was chosen due to the high prevalence of FAEE-positive meconium shown in a old anon. survey. Because Grey-Bruce communities are reasonably little in size, the consequences may hold been different if showing was implemented at a primary parturition site, where patients may be more trusting of their wellness attention suppliers, who probably provided them with antenatal attention. Alternatively, because the community is little, adult females may be even less likely to accept because of frights of stigmatisation and other societal deductions that may be more marked in a little community. Whatever the instance may be, the consequences may non be applicable to a primary health-care scene in a little community. To sum up, this is the first survey to implement an unfastened neonatal testing plan for antenatal intoxicant exposure aimed at easing sensing and direction of FASD. Follow-up, intercessions, and support plans were individualized and offered within the model of presently available services in the country, thereby patterning a plan that could be implemented in clinical pattern. We demonstrated that adult females ‘s involuntariness to partake in this showing, particularly of those who consumed intoxicant in gestation, may impede the execution of such testing plans in clinical pattern. Future surveies should research schemes that may better adult females ‘s willingness to consent, every bit good as, evaluate and reference other possible barriers to testing by finding the cost-effectiveness, logistics, and best patterns for plan execution.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Concept Of Race In Désirées Baby By Kate Chopin

In her short story named â€Å"Dà ©sirà ©e’s Baby†, Kate Chopin gives readers an inside view of the concept of race in the pre-Civil War era of Louisiana. Chopin’s protagonist, Dà ©sirà ©e, clashes with societal standards because of her mixed-race child and unknown racial origins. Race becomes a major conflict throughout the story and drives Dà ©sirà ©e’s husband to blame her for the child. The ironic ending of the story not only gives a surprising twist but also makes a stand against the concept of biological race. While the racial issues of â€Å"Dà ©sirà ©e’s Baby† were set in the past, these social concepts still occur today in the modern era. The concept of race in the pre-Civil War era develops a major conflict between the characters†¦show more content†¦And my skin is fair,† (424). Dà ©sirà ©e’s reactions to the realization of her baby’s mixed-race and the accusation of not being fully white are d ue to the way race was defined in pre-Civil War Louisiana. Throughout the story, race is defined solely by skin color and those that were not purely white were ridiculed, shamed, abused and treated the same as African-American slaves. Dà ©sirà ©e, Madame Valmonde, and Armand were distressed upon knowing the baby’s mixed-race heritage because of the social impact it would have on their lives. Although the ending of the story may only seem to be an ironic twist of events to some readers, I believe that it also attempts to define race as a social construct. After Armand sends Dà ©sirà ©e and the baby away, he begins burning their belongings and finds a letter from his mother to his father that states, â€Å"night and day, I thank the good God for having so arranged our lives that our dear Armand will never know that his mother, who adores him, belongs to the race that is cursed with the brand of slavery† (425). Although Armand was African-American, he was not treated as such because the origin of his race was hidden from everyone. Although there are hints to Armand’s race throughout the story, such as when Dà ©sirà ©e stated, â€Å"Look at my hand; whiter than yours, Armand, (424); his appearance did not affect his life because he was believed to be white. Armand’sShow MoreRelatedThe Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin1540 Words   |  7 PagesIn Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Story of an Hour†, the main character, Mrs. Louise Mallard, is a woman with a heart problem that gets horrifying news that her husband has passed away in a train crash. When she starts thinking about her freedom, she gets excited; she is happy to start her new, free life. However, a few hours later her husband walks in the door and she finds out it was all a mistake. When she realizes her freedom is gone her heart stop and she then dies. In â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† Desiree is an orphanedRead MoreCharacteristics Of Kate Chopin Contributions T o Regionalism771 Words   |  4 PagesBrueggman English Composition II Dr. Vanderlaan Essay 2 DUE: 10/ 31/2017 Kate Chopin’s Contribution to Regionalism Between 1865 and 1896 regionalism/local color fiction became popular. Regional literature can be defined as fiction or poetry that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features to a specific region. Regionalism incorporates the broader concept of sectional differences yet lacks nostalgia or sentimentality. Many critics have argued thatRead More Gender Roles in Chopins Desirees Baby and A Point at Issue1319 Words   |  6 PagesGender Roles in Chopins Desirees Baby and A Point at Issue Many female writers write about womens struggle for equality and how they are looked upon as inferior. Kate Chopin exhibits her views about women in her stories. The relationship between men and women in Kate Chopins stories imply the attitudes that men and women portray. In many of Chopins works, the idea that womens actions are driven by the men in the story reveals that men are oppressive and dominant and women are vulnerableRead MoreDesiree s Baby : Irony1392 Words   |  6 PagesGreta Scalco Scalco 1 Dr. Sabrina Boyer ENG 131- FON01 12/11/2016 Irony in â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† Irony existed in real life from immemorial time and will continue to be, therefore, the authors of literary works will continue in the future to use this literary technique in their work to highlight the truths of human society, and readers will continue to be interested in such works in the future. Irony is a comment used to transmit disappointmentRead MoreDesiree’s Baby: Prejudiced Criticism of the One-Drop Rule1245 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Desiree’s Baby† provides insight into the application of the hypodescent rule in plantation-era Louisiana, depicting individuals of mixed race who are marked and assigned to the subordinate social group. In her short story, â€Å"Desiree’s Baby,† Kate Chopin addresses the practice as it was applied to the â€Å"one-drop rule,† the notion that an individual with white complexion may be deemed black by society given the presence of any African ancestry. Desiree, the story’s protagonist, is eloqu ently placedRead MoreSocietal Boundaries in Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour and Desirees Baby 1910 Words   |  8 PagesSocietal Boundaries in Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour and Desirees Baby As humans, we live our life within the boundaries of our belief systems and moral guidelines we were raised with. Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Story of an Hour† and â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† tells the story of two women who live according to those societal boundaries. American author Kate Chopin (1850–1904) wrote about a hundred short stories and two novels in the 1890s. Most of her fictionRead MoreAnalysis Of Desiree s Baby By Kate Chopin1446 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis of Desiree’s Baby In the story Desiree s Baby by Kate Chopin the plot mainly revolves around race issues and also includes elements of sexism. In terms of race the difference between being white and being black shows vital importance in the characters lives through the story. As Desiree and Armand both originally associate themselves with the white class, once the plot unveils their black heritage they are faced with uncertainty, and ultimately their lives become meaninglessRead MoreDesiree s Baby By Kate Chopin1770 Words   |  8 PagesBack in this era of time the most respectable job for a woman was to be a loving wife in her husband’s household. In the short story â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† written by Kate Chopin, we have this setting of this older woman named Madame Valmondà © is on her way to visit her adopted daughter Desiree who has recently given birth to her son by her husband Armand Aubigny. Everything seems to be going well at the plantation due to master of the house being so thrilled about having his son being born. As timeRead More A Comparison Between Desirees Baby Stench Of Kerosene Essay1887 Words   |  8 PagesA Comparison Between Desirees Baby Stench Of Kerosene Stench Of Kerosene was written by Amrita Pritam approximately fifty years ago. This emotional short story mainly revolves around the relationships between a woman, her husband and his mother. Another important theme is the significance of cultures and traditions in the protagonists lives. The main characters are Manak and Guleri, who are husband and wife. Guleri and Manak are a loving couple who live with Manaks mother in a small